Santosh D. Sabale
Centre for Educational Studies
Indian Institute of Education
Several massive ethnic-based protests and collective public ethnic exclusion and discrimination have occurred over issues of the resettlement of Roma Gypsies. Roma Gypsies are bereft of a full citizenship rights, economic entitlement and protection from social insecurity. After the decades of the state-funded service provisions through the non-governmental organisations in Spain, the development of Roma remained static. In the name of the formal vocational training and skill programmes, the ‘Spanish Model’ for Roma Inclusion i.e., Acceder and Workaló programmes have become a myth for their socio-economic development since the 2000. Using the purposive sampling method, 52 Roma individuals engaged in informal and recycling sector were studied from Bilbao city of Basque Country (Bizkaia) of Spain. In conclusion, the process of Roma inclusion model by the Spanish government has witnessed hefty challenges for the community interventions and implementation. The study argued the discourse of social inclusion seeks to debunk the idea that the poverty is due to the cultural inadequacies of the poor and underlines economic, political, and cultural barriers, and discrimination faced by Roma in routine labour activities.
Key Words: Inclusion Model, Roma Civil Society, Exclusion, Banjara, Ethnic Monority, Labour Market.