Dr. Girijesh Lal SrivastavaAssociate Professor& Head, Department of Geography, D.A.V College (C.S.J.M University) Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (India)
Dr. Sukamal MaityW.B. Govt. Approved Part-time lecturer, Narajole Raj College of Vidyasagar University, Paschim Medinipur, Narajole – 721211, West Bengal (India)
Rivers are major sources of fresh water and the availability of water is affected by river basin’s characteristics such as rainfall and land cover type. This study is an overview of the gauge level, discharge and sediment load in the alluvial reaches of the River Ganga in the lower part of Upper Ganga plains (UGP) between the two hydrological stations Ankin Ghat and Kanpur. The aim of this study is to analyze the trend and variability of precipitation and stream flow in the Ganga River on the two hydrological station in the study area. Therefore, two gauge, discharge and sediment (GDS) sites were established with the help of Upper Ganga Organization Central Water Commission (UGBOCWC), Kanpur and Lucknow office..Discharge measurements in natural water courses are performed in order to determine the value of the surface outflow of a basin, its temporal variability, and the outflow characteristics. The methods conventionally used for these measurements utilize an immersed current meter in different points of a river section, which acquires the mean flow velocity. Using this measurement, the discharge are calculated. Some experimental problems were arised, however, when there is a very high discharge..The statistical analysis of monthly and annualriver flow depicted dropping values of stream discharge as well which prove thecorrelation of both important variables. Therefore, the calculated time series ofboth hydro-climate elements showed decreasing. The amount of total suspendedsolids being very high in most of the Ganga river have resulted in rapid siltingand subsequent loss in the storage capacity of the existing reservoirs and it is timethat priority is given to the construction of new dams.
Key words: River Discharge, Suspended Sediment, Gauge Level.